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Causes, Symptoms, Treatments, and Expectations

melasma header

What Is Melasma

what is melasma pigmentation

Melasma is a form of hyperpigmentation due to excess melanin production by melanocyte cells, characterised by dark spots (or patches), primarily on the face. These spots often appear on the cheeks, forehead, nose, and upper lip. Often triggered by sun exposure and hormonal changes, it is more prevalent in women. Understanding individual triggers and skin types is key to effectively managing melasma.

dermamelan alainn pigmentation

Causes Of Melasma

what is melasma causes
  1. Melanocytes, the cells responsible for melanin (pigment responsible for the skin’s darkened appearance) production are triggered to produce more melanin following UV exposure and oxidative stress.
  2. Disruption of the basement membrane, the layer bordering the epidermis and dermis layers of the skin leads to penetration of melanocytes and melanin into the dermis, giving rise to deep-seated pigmentation seen in melasma.
  3. Inflammatory cells which stimulate inflammation, formation and dilation of blood vessels contribute to chronic inflammation and persistent pigmentation.
  4. Photoaging, characterised by skin aging from UV exposure results in thinning of our skin, increased pigmentation and further disruption of the basement membrane.

Why Is Melasma Challenging To Treat?

Hyperpigmentation in melasma affects both the epidermis and dermis, making certain topical
treatments ineffective due to insufficient penetration.

Exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun triggers redness, new vessel formation and oxidative stress to our skin, giving rise to excessive melanin production and reactivation of melasma.

Long-term treatment of melasma requires diligent topical therapy and strict sun avoidance, something that can be difficult to achieve in this geographical region.

Risk factors and triggers of melasma include genetic predisposition, sun exposure, hormonal factors and skin type, many of which are beyond our reach and control.

How To Treat Melasma

The first step to treating melasma is to assess the severity of the pigmentation. For surface-level pigmentation, solutions like laser treatments or topical applications can be effective. However, deeper or stubborn pigmentation often requires a more comprehensive, multi-layered approach, like Dermamelan, which targets both the surface and deeper layers with a multi-layered treatment strategy. This method is designed to not only speed up skin renewal but also to inhibit the mechanisms causing persistent hyperpigmentation.

Melasma Treatment Options